0415 4-4-2T LSWR Adams 30582 – 30584


Power Classification 1P
Introduced 1882 – 1885
Designer Adams
Company LSWR
Weight 55t 2cwt
Driving Wheels 5ft 7ins
Boiler Pressure 160psi
Cylinders Outside – 17.5in x 24in
Tractive Effort 14,920lbf
Valve Gear Stephenson (slide valve)

William Adams was the first notable British engineer to advocate the use of guiding bogie in a locomotive chassis.

Adams joined the London & South Western Railway (L&SWR) in 1878 and his design was a 4-4-0T for suburban duties that was subsequently extended to a 4-4-2T to accommodate an enlarged coal bunker.

William Adams was appointed to the post of Chief Mechanical engineer with the L&SWR in 1878 and his first design was the 46 class 4-4-0 tank engines which he introduced in 1879 to work on suburban services around London and in and out of Waterloo. They were built by Beyer, Peacock & Co. and numbered 46, 123/4, 130, 132/3 and 374/9.

They were then converted to 4-4-2 radial tanks between 1883 and 1886 following the successful introduction of the 415 class of 4-4-2 radial tanks, later the 0415 class, in 1882. They were ordered to fill an urgent need for passenger tank engines and because of limited capacity at Nine Elms, the decision was also made to order these from outside locomotive manufacturers. The 4-4-2 wheel arrangement allowed the locomotive to have a larger coal bunker.


Builder serial number Quantity LSWR numbers


1882 Beyer, Peacock & Co 2167–2178


1883 Robert Stephenson & Co2501–2518


427–432, 45, 47–57
1884 Dübs & Co. 2000–2009


169–171, 173, 490–495
1885 Neilson & Co. 3200–3210


1885 Robert Stephenson & Co.2601–2610


68, 77–78, 82, 104, 106–107, 125–126, 129 68, 77–78 renumbered 58–60 in 1889–90
1885 Dübs & Co. 2105–2114




The locomotives became known as Radial tanks as a radial truck was fitted to support the weight of the enlarged bunker, which carried a well tank between the wheels and in the bunker below the coal holding 680 gallons of water between the frames, as well as three tons of coal. The new locomotives were an instant success and further authorisations were given in the following three years for 59 more 415s, giving a final total of 71 locomotives in this class. Although all were to the same basic design, those delivered after 1884 had slightly larger side tanks and deeper fireboxes. All initially carried the familiar Adams stove pipe chimney and most were allocated to the London area for suburban traffic.

Spare boilers were provided in 1895, to a modified design, to facilitate improved turnaround times during overhauls at Nine Elms Works.

Upon the appointment of Drummond as Superintendent of the LSWR after Adams’ departure, the class was modified slightly, with the application of his lipped chimney in place of the stovepipe version that the locomotives were equipped with when built. In Drummond’s time a further 2 spare boilers were built for the class and the exchange of any of these newer boilers necessitated minor modifications to items such as cab fronts. This also coincided with the addition of coal rails to the bunker in an attempt to increase capacity. Because the class was not considered to have a long working life under Urie, they were not equipped with superheating.

Although the introduction of Adams T1 class of 0-4-4 tanks displaced some from the London area, this process of dispersal to the country areas was hastened by the introduction of Drummond’s M7 0-4-4 tanks. However, many radial tanks still remained on selected, but less onerous London duties, until the start of suburban electrification in Urie’s time.

 T1 T1 class introduced by Adams in 1894
 M7 M7 class introduced by Drummond in 1897.

Large numbers were taken out of service in 1916 when the LSWR suburban electrification started, but due to the war conditions they were not broken up and remained in Eastleigh yard in various stages of decay for several years.

In September 1917 number 0488 (30583) was sold to the Ministry of Munitions for £2,107, and then worked at Ridham Dock near Sittingbourne either as a rather unsuitable dock shunter or more likely on staff trains. It was purchased from the Ministry of Munitions Disposal and Liquidation Commission in March 1923 for £375 by Colonel Holman F. Stephens, for use on the East Kent Railway where it became EKR No 5, and delivered to Shepherdswell in April 1923.

Seemingly little suited to the East Kent Light Railways’ needs the new addition was a pure passenger engine it was only used when absolutely necessary and then largely on coal trains taking 14 wagons on the Tilmanstone shuttle. Latterly it seems to have worked about once a month and last used at the end of May 1943. In 1946 it was re-purchased by the Southern Railway for £120 and overhauled at Eastleigh at a cost of £1,500 to work on the Lyme Regis branch.

Early in 1918 numbers 0480/1/5/7 were sent to Glasgow on their way to help out on the Highland Railway during an acute shortage of locomotives at the end of the First World War.

Although the First World War gave many of them an extension to their time there were a significant number of withdrawals (38) in 1921.

They remained there until 1919 for 0480/1 and 1921 for the remaining 0485/7.

The remaining 30 locomotives entered into Southern Railway stock in 1923, but for these the encroaching electrification meant that all but numbers 0125 (30582) and 0520 (30584) were withdrawn by 1930.

Going back in time to 1913, it had been found after several years of trying redundant Stroudley Terriers and Drummond O2s on the severely curved Lyme Regis branch, that the flexible 0415 class tanks were much more successful, so three were allocated to Exmouth Junction shed for that service. Various class members came and went for service on the branch, but by 1929 the remaining two, 0125 (30582) and 0520 (30584) were also in bad shape and laid aside. Their replacements, two ex-LBSCR D1 tanks were as unsuccessful as their brethren Terrier tanks had been 25 years earlier, so 0125 and 0520 were sent to Eastleigh for rebuilding to emerge as 3125 (30582) and 3520 (30584). These sufficed for branch services until 1945.

Over a period of time it was found that the two engines were not adequate for maintaining the service – if one engine was in the works, only one engine was available to work the service, with no cover in any case of a Breakdown.

In March 1946 the East Kent Railway engine 0488 (30583) was re-purchased by the Southern Railway for £120 and extensively overhauled at Eastleigh Works. It was renumbered 3488 and the three engines continued to work the branch until 1961.

The engines took turns to work the Lyme Regis branch, one week at a time, with the other two being kept spare at Exmouth Junction Shed. The line was then taken over by the Western Region in 1961 and modifications were undertaken on the trackwork to enable the 0415 class locomotives to be replaced by Ivatt 2MT 2-6-2Ts. Steam on this branch was short-lived as it was replaced by diesel railcars and the branch was closed under the Beeching cuts in 1964.

Modifications were undertaken on the trackwork to enable Ivatt 2-6-2tanks to be passed for use on the line.

 Ivatt tank Ivatt 2MT 2-6-2T introduced in 1946.

Accidents and Incidents

On 6 August 1888, locomotive 484 was working light engine when it was in a head-on collision with a passenger train hauled by locomotive 486 at Hampton Wick station, Middlesex due to a signalman’s error. Four people were killed and fifteen were injured.



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