8F  90000 – 90732  2-8-0  MOS (WD) Austerity

90000.jpg

 

Power Classification 8F
Introduced 1943 – 1946
Designer Riddles
Company Ministry of Supply
Weight – Loco 70t 5cwt
               Tender 44t 10cwt
Driving Wheels 4ft 8½ins
Boiler Pressure 225psi superheated
Cylinders Outside – 19in x 28in
Tractive Effort 34,215lbf
Valve Gear Walschaert (piston valves)

During the Second World War there was a need for a heavy freight locomotive for military service. The Railway Executive Committee considered the Great Central Railway Robinson 2-8-0, as used in the First World War and the Collett 8F but both were rejected on the grounds of limited route availability. The design chosen was the LMS Stanier 8F 2-8-0 which was the most advanced heavy freight locomotive design at the time.

 gcr 2-8-0 GCR Robinson 2-8-0 introduced in 1902
 gwr 8f GWR Collett 8F introduced in 1938
 lms 8f LMS Stanier 8F introduced in 1935

Experienced showed that a simpler type of locomotive was required that could be built at minimal cost and be suitable for short term operation during the war.The changes in design included a boiler of simpler construction which was parallel rather than tapered and a round-topped firebox rather than a Belpaire firebox. The firebox was made of steel rather than the rarer and more expensive copper.

The engines were designed so that they could be adapted for different working conditions. For instance, the boiler could be converted from coal to oil burning without the need to lift the boiler of the frames of the locomotive. The narrow bunker on the tender was designed to give good visibility when the engine was working tender first.

The war-time Austerity locomotives were designed by Riddles and 935 were built by the North British Locomotive Company and Vulcan Foundry from 1943 onwards. Many saw service in France, Holland and Belgium during the Second World War.

 

Date Builder

Quantity

800-879

1944

NBL (Queen’s Park)

    80

7000-7049

1943

NBL (Hype Park)

    50

7050-7149

1943

VF

  100

7150-7262

1943

NBL (Hype Park)

  113

7263-7299

1944

NBL (Hype Park)

    37

7300-7416

1943

NBL (Queen’s Park)

  117

7417-7449

1944

NBL (Queen’s Park)

    33

7450-7464

1943

VF

    15

7465-7509

1944

VF

    45

8510-8530

1944

NBL (Queen’s Park)

    21

8531-8559

1945

NBL (Hype Park)

    29

8560-8611

1944

NBL (Hype Park)

    52

8612-8624

1945

NBL (Hype Park)

    13

8625-8718

1944

VF

    94

9177-9243

1944

VF

    67

9244-9312

1945

VF

    69

  935

All of the locomotives had their WD number increased by 7000 before being shipped to mainland Europe.

All but three engines (WD 77223, WD 77369 and WD 79250) saw service with the British Army in mainland Europe after D-Day.

After being used in the Second World War the locomotives were redeployed.

733

The 200 initially sold to the LNER and the 533 originally loaned to BR locomotives were used by BR

184

Dutch State Railway – Nederlandse Spoorwegen. Two of these were subsequently sold to the Swedish Sate Railway

  12

Transferred to Hong Kong in 1946 to work on the Kowloon to Canton Railway. Six were scrapped in 1956 but two survived until 1962.

    1

US Army Transportation Corps in exchange for a S160 class locomotive.

    2

Retained by for use on the Longmoor Military Railway

    3

Scrapped

935

Locomotives taken into BR stock.

Built Withdrawals No. in Service
BR Numbers

Quantity

1943 90000-35, 70, 101-289, 422-432 & 521-608 325     325
1944 90036-69, 71-97, 290-401, 433-512 & 609-697 342     667
1945 90098-100, 402-421, 513-520 & 698-732   66     733
1946-58     733
1959             1     732
1960             2     730
1961     730
1962           80     650
1963           97     553
1964         125     428
1965         201     227
1966         104     123
1967         123   0
  • 90000-90100 and 90422-90520 were purchased by the LNER in 1947 and classed as LNER O7 class (63000-63199) but were renumbered from 1949 onwards as part of the Standard Austerity class.
  • 90000-90421 were built by the North British Locomotive Company.
  • 90422-90732 were built by Vulcan Foundry.

Members of the class were deployed on all regions of BR although none of the 34 initially allocated to the Southern Region remained on in the south beyond 1951.

Accidents and Incidents

  • On 2 July 1941, a locomotive of the class was hauling a freight train which was in a head-on collision with an express passenger train at Slough, Berkshire. Five people were killed and 21 were injured.
  • On 2 June 1944 a heavy freight train of 51 wagons and a brake van from Whitemoor marshalling yard, near March to Ipswich caught fire near Soham. The train was being hauled by WD 7337 and consisted of 44 wagons containing a total of weight of 400 tons of bombs and seven wagons containing other components such as tail fins.
    • As the train approached Soham station the driver (Benjamin Gimbert) observed flames coming from the leading wagon which was full of general purpose bombs. He brought the train to a stop and he instructed the fireman (James Nightall) to uncouple the first wagon from the rest of the train. Despite the fire being quite serious by this stage the fireman managed to uncouple the wagon and the driver then moved forward with the burning wagon attached to the locomotive. The engine and wagon had only moved about 140 yards when the bombs in the wagon on fire went off.
    • The blast killed the fireman and a signalman who was on Soham station. The driver was badly injured but survived. The guard managed to walk to the next signal box to warn other trains.
    • The explosion created a crater 66 feet in diameter and 15 feet deep, the station buildings were almost demolished and there was damage to over 700 properties within 900 yards. Despite the severity of the explosion, emergency repairs meant that the line was open to freight traffic within eighteen hours and passenger traffic resumed the next day.
    • Although this was still a sizeable explosion the effect and damage was little compared to what would have happened if the entire train load of bombs had exploded. The conduct of the driver and fireman in attempting, and succeeding, in reducing the result of the incident was recognised by the award in July 1944 of the George Cross to both men.
    • In September 1944 the locomotive (WD 7337) was rebuilt with a new boiler.
  • On 17 September 1950, WD locomotive 77195 ran away from Nevill Hill Locomotive Shed, Leeds, Yorkshire and subsequently crashed through buffers at Marsh Lane Goods Yard, Leeds.
  • On 2 December 1953, locomotive 90048 ran off the end of the loop at Billingham, County Durham whilst hauling a train. An express freight train ran into the wreckage and was derailed.
90350 Thornton July 1965.jpg 90350 (WD 77278) at Thornton-July 1965. This locomotive spent all of its life under BR based at Thornton. It was withdrawn from service there in August 1966
90072 York Feb 1966.jpg 90072 (WD 63054) at York-February 1966. It spent all of its working life under BR based on the North Eastern Region. It was withdrawn from service at Normanton in January 1967.
Wakefield May 1966.jpg Wakefield shed-May 1966. The shed remained open until July 1967. More than forty members of the class were based there at the time.
90054 & 43137 Wakefield May 1966.jpg 90054 (WD 63054) & 43137 at Wakefield-May 1966. 90054 was withdrawn from service at Normanton in January 1967.
90056 & 42269 Wakefield May 1966.jpg 90056 (WD 63056) & 42269 on Wakefield shed-May 1966. 90056 was only allocated to North eastern Region sheds under BR ownership. It was withdrawn from service at Sunderland in May 1967.
90112 Wakefield May 1966.jpg 90112 (WD77014) at Wakefield-May 1966. It had started life under BR ownership at Banbury before moving to Lancashire bases. In November it was allocated to Mirfield which subsequently became a North Eastern Region depot. It was withdrawn from service at Sunderland in January 1967.
90357 Wakefield May1966.jpg 90357 (WD77291) on Wakefield shed-May 1966. It stated life with BR at Old Oak Common where it remained very briefly before moving to Reading for a about a year. In June 1949 it moved to Wakefield where it spent most of its working life. It was withdrawn from service at Sunderland in September 1966.
90404 Wakefield May 1966.jpg 90404 (WD 78615) on Wakefield shed-May 1966. After being taken out of store 90404 started its BR life at Wakwfield in August 1949. Apart from a month at Goole it remained based at Wakefield until withdrawn from service in June 1967.
90610 wakefield May 1966.jpg 90610 (WD 77466) on Wakefield shed-May 1966. After starting life under BR ownership at Accrington in May 1949 it migrated to Wakefield in October 1953. It was withdrawn from service at Wakefield in May 1967.
90615 Wakefield May 1966.jpg 90615 (WD 77471) on Wakefield shed-May 1966. 90615 was based at Wakefield from September 1949 until July 1966 when it moved to Royston. It was withdrawn from service at Normanton in September 1967.
90620 wakefield May 1966.jpg 90620 (WD 77482) on Wakefield shed-May 1966. This locomotive spent all of its BR working life based at Wakefield. The exception was a month at Mirfield in 1950. It  was withdrawn from service at Wakefield in June 1967.
90126 in front of 90054 Mirfield May 1966.jpg

90126 (WD77029) in front of 90054 on Mirfield shed-May 1966. This locomotive was based in Lancashire until moving east in October 1956 to Low Moor. It was withdrawn from service at Wakefield in January 1967.

 

90588 West Hartlepool July 1966.jpg 90588 (WD77141) on West Hartlepool shed-July 1966. It was based at West Hartlepool from October 1964 until it was withdrawn from service in February 1967.

Preservation

Despite the fact that of the last fifteen locomotives overhauled at Crewe Works seven were 2-8-0 Austerity engines none of the home based members of the class have been preserved. 24 of these locomotives were not withdrawn from service until September 1967.

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