T3 4-4-0 LSWR Adams



Power Classification
Introduced 1892 – 1893
Designer Adams
Company LSWR
     Weight – Loco 48t 11cwt
                    Tender 36t  4cwt
Driving Wheels 6ft 7ins
Boiler Pressure 175psi
Cylinders Inside – 19in x 26in
Tractive Effort 17,670lbf
Valve Gear Stephenson (slide valve)

The T3 class was the ultimate Adams LSWR 4-4-0 design of express passenger locomotives, all having outside cylinders. Adams had built 4-4-0 locomotives of during 1876-77 when he was employed by the Great Eastern Railway (GER). Adams initiated the design for the London, Tilbury and Southend Railway 4-4-2T (80 Thundersley is part of the National Collection) which has outside cylinders of a similar nature to those on the T3 class.

The class T3 locomotive was one of the family of four similar 4-4-0s introduced by Adams from 1890 onwards. These four classes represented the pinnacle of his career and were at least on par with, and in many cases better than, contemporary locomotives of other lines. Although each of these four classes had outside cylinders, which tended to lead to unsteadiness, these locomotives had long wheelbases and always ran freely as well as being powerful for their day.

The first 20 locomotives were built with 7ft 1in driving wheels and were designated class X2, but upon their completion Adams introduced a class of very similar locomotives, the T3 class, with longer smokeboxes, smaller bogies wheels and driving wheels with a reduced diameter of 6ft 7ins. Adams chose the smaller sized wheels as the locomotives were intended for use on the undulating lines west of Salisbury. However, upon completion of the class by 1893, some were sent to major depots on the Bournemouth line, as well as those on the Salisbury-Exeter route.

Drummond gradually replaced the elegant stovepipe chimneys with one of his own design, but as these and other minor modifications took place under Drummond’s care, the T3s were being displaced by more modern designs such as his T9 class. A few T3s were sent west of Exeter where they were particularly successful. During the First World War, these T3s, like all of Adams locomotives, were in much demand and all survived to be taken into Southern Railway stock in 1923.

With the spread of electrification in the 1920s and 1930s, a surplus of light passenger locomotives on the LSWR and SR was building up and withdrawals of the T3s commenced, with all but three going by the end of 1933. One of the remaining three was withdrawn in 1936, but numbers 563 and 571 saw the start of the Second World War. However, 571 was withdrawn in 1942 having amassed more than 1.7 million miles in service. 563 continued in service only to be laid aside in 1945 with over 1.5 million miles in service.


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