S&D  Class 1001  0-6-0  Stockton & Darlington Railway  1275 

1275 a

Details relate to locomotive 1275

Power Classification
DesignerWilliam Bouch
CompanyStockton & Darlington Railway
Weight – Loco35t 4cwt
               Tender22t 2cwt
Driving Wheels5ft ½ins
Boiler Pressure140psi
CylindersInside – 17in x 26in
Tractive Effort14,750lbf
Valve GearStephenson (slide valve)

The NER 1001 class locomotives covers a large number of 0-6-0 goods engines that originated back in the Stockton & Darlington Railway. They were built by several a variety of builders – Darlington and Shildon works, Avonside Engine Co at Bristol, Dubs & Co at Glasgow, Nikes, Wilson at Middlesborough, Hawthorn & Co at Newcastle upon Tyne, Hopkins, Gikes & Co at Middlesborough, Kitching & Co at Darlington and Robert Stephenson & Co at Newcastle upon Tyne.

The locomotives shared several sizes of cylinders and three sizes of driving wheels. The thing that they did have in common was the long boiler and short wheelbases.

The long boiler locomotive, with its firebox set behind the rearmost driving/coupled axle, dated back to the early 1840s and Robert Stephenson, who patented it the raison d’etre being to maximise heat absorption via the long tubes. It was applied it to 2-2-2, 2-4-0 and 0-6-0 locomotives, which were later also constructed by several other builders. It was strictly limited as regards significant enlargement, particularly as regards the firebox, and was inherently unsuited from the stability point of view to passenger work. It was therefore built in 0-6-0 goods form the longest, particularly for the London & North Western Railway (Southern Division) until 1853, and for the Stockton & Darlington Railway from 1849 until 1875.

On the Stockton & Darlington Railway the locomotives were used to haul goods and mineral trains which spent had to spend time in passing loops. The long boiler had the advantage that they were able to store substantial amounts of steam whilst waiting making it easier to move off once they had a clear road and minimising the coal consumption.

1275 was a very late example and the last survivor in service on the North Eastern Railway by several years.

The long boiler 0-6-0 was particularly associated with North East England, not only with the S&DR, but also in pannier tank engine form with the Consett Iron Company. This enterprise operated a fleet of 24, built by six different builders between 1872 and 1941. Four were built by Hawthorn Leslie & Co. in 1936-1938, and three by Robert Stephenson & Hawthorns as late as 1941. Even these were strictly not the last long boiler steam locomotives ever built, as two 0-6-4Ts on this pattern were built by Beyer, Peacock & Co. in 1949 for the Sligo Leitrim & Northern Counties Railway in Ireland. Long boiler 0-6-0 tender engines remained in use in Spain and New South Wales until well into the 1960s.

As with many older North Eastern Railway (NER) types, the 1001 classification was used to cover a range of similar locomotives. The class started life in 1852 when the Stockton & Darlington Railway (S&D) ordered six locomotives from Gilkes, Wilson and Co. of Middlesborough. At the time, these engines were known as the Hippopotamus class, and they were followed by many more engines built by a variety of different manufacturers. Although the S&D merged with the NER in 1863, locomotive management remained separate for a long period of time, and construction of new 1001 locomotives continued until 1875. There is some evidence that the original batch of six engines suffered some significant problems. Two were withdrawn after only eleven years, and the others were substantially rebuilt. Later batches experienced less rebuilding, and the rebuilding history of 1275 was typical.

The 1001 class was one of Bouch’s long boiler 0-6-0 designs. These locomotives had the entire weight of the engine on the six driving wheels. The boiler was notably long, but the fire grate was small – especially when compared to later design principles. This basic design concept was perpetuated on the S&D for a long time, and was decidedly old-fashioned in its later years. Despite this, the design actually suited typical S&D mineral workings. These workings were generally short and involved lots of waiting for signals or loading. The waiting allowed the locomotive time to build up pressure in its large boiler. The short workings meant that boiler pressure could be sustained long enough for the working to be completed. Hence the small grate did not provide a significant limitation, but actually contributed to economic running.


NER 1275

1275 in the NRM at York - August 2015.jpg

1275 was the only 1001 locomotive to survive into LNER ownership. Due to the wide variability in the 1001 locomotives, concentrate here is on 1275.1275 was built by Dübs and was delivered to the S&D in May 1874.

A McDonnell-pattern boiler was fitted in August 1883. This boiler was 4ft 1in diameter and had 190 tubes. This was followed by a standard W.Worsdell boiler in June 1896. This new boiler had wider water spaces than the earlier McDonnell boiler. When 1275 entered LNER ownership, it was still fitted with a Worsdell boiler, although this was a secondhand one that was fitted in July 1906 (from 1014).

The S&D used the 1001 locomotives for the majority of its mineral workings for a very long time. By the 1870s, when 1275 was introduced, the 1001 class were used extensively hauling Durham coke to Barrow in Furness via Stainmore Summit. As many as twelve trains a day in each direction were hauled by class 1001 engines. They also hauled haematite ore from Whitehaven to Kirkby Stephen via the Cockermouth Keswick & Penrith line and the Eden Valley.

The other major area in which the locomotives operated was in the Darlington area with a few based at Rosendale in the heart of the North Yorkshire Moors where they worked on the branch to Battersby. Others including 1275 were based at Whitby and Malton

By 1906, many were still being used on the steep lines in the Loftus area. Although they were still held in very high esteem, they were used for less arduous work during their later years. A clear exception was the exposed Rosedale branch. Here, a number of 1001 class engines were used to haul ironstone to the head of the Ingleby incline. 1255 and 1286 survived on this duty until 1921 when they were replaced by J24s. In these later years, 1275 was allocated to Malton and was used to haul local goods services to Whitby. The Malton shed is noted for keeping 1275 in a very clean condition, and O.S. Nock described his first-hand experience of the pride that the Malton enginemen had for what was already an antiquarian engine.

1275 entered into LNER ownership with an official mileage of 908,984 miles. Still in its NER livery, it was quickly withdrawn on 16th February 1923.

In May 1923 the North Eastern Museum Committee debated whether to obtain a Fletcher 901 class 2-4-0 or a 1001 class 0-6-0 for preservation, in the event it acquired both. Having participated in the S&DR Centenary celebrations in 1925 1275 was placed in the York Museum in 1927. For safe keeping during the Second World War the engine was stored at Ferryhill, Co. Durham, returning to York in 1947.

It was restored ready for the 1925 Stockton & Darlington Centenary celebrations, where it was also steamed. The restoration attempted to bring 1275 back to its original condition but the Worsdell boiler was retained. 1275 survives in this condition at the National Railway Museum, York.

1275 is part of the National Collection and is on static display at the National Railway Museum at York.

NRM Object Number{1975-7009}

Home BaseCurrent StatusOwner
National Railway Museum – YorkOn static displayNational Railway Museum NRM Object Number{1975-7009}
1275 in the British Transport Museum at York - June 1960.jpg
1275 in the British Transport Museum at York – June 1960
1275 in the NRM at York - August 2015.jpg
1275 in the NRM at York – August 2015
1275 in the National Railway Museum at York – July 2013

Back to Pre 1923 Grouping

Back to Locomotives

National Railway Museum Collection